PAC 100 – Reciprocal Concessions for a Common Uncertainty November 24, 2013: The Temporary Accord on the Iranian Nuclear Program

By: Josepha Laroche Translation: Lawrence Myers Passage au crible n°100 Source : Wikipedia After ten years of successive failures, a temporary accord on the Iranian nuclear program was signed in Geneva on November 24, 2013, between Iran – by Mohammed Javad Zarif – and the representatives of the group 5+1, namely the five permanent members of the Security Council (China, the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Russia) and Germany. This document predicts a renewable period of six months before final negotiations will be undertaken. For the moment, the participating parties have agreed on a substantial deceleration of the Iranian nuclear program. It has therefore been established that its uranium enrichment cannot exceed 5%, and this in order to distance the spectrum of a military nuclear program. As for the existing stock of uranium already – enriched to 20% near the military level – it will have to be neutralized. Lastly, the planned new centrifuges must remain non-operational. Similarly, it will be necessary to stop the work in progress relative to heavy water. In return for this series of obligations, Iran will obtain a partial lifting of the sanctions that until now have been weighing it down. For example, the country will be able to access previously inaccessible funds, which reached 4 billion dollars. However, the essential aspects of the embargo measures remain in place, in particular those concerning the exportation of oil and financial transfers from Iran. It is certain that this conversation constitutes a first step towards the appeasing of tensions, but it remains entirely reversible. > Historical background > Theoretical framework > Analysis > References Historical background The NPT (Treaty...

PAC 93 – The Nobel Diplomacy as a Symbolic Interventionism The Nobel Peace Prize Awarded to the OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)

By Josepha Laroche
Translation: Frédéric Ocrisse-Aka
Passage au crible n°93
While for several weeks, all international media were expecting the young Pakistani activist Malala Yousufzai to be the next recipient, it is finally the OPCW that received…